8. EGYPTIAN CAPSULES

 CAPSULE 1

I developed the following formulas, based on Phi = f, for some of the most important pyramids of Egypt and for the benefit of the readers.

 

Pyramids         Slope            Side Length        Height           Angle

                         D/b                  (b)                     (R)              ° /' /" 

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Khufu              Öf        (D / Öf) = 2R/ Öf      (b Öf) / 2      51.82729337°

                                                                                                51° 49' 38.3"    

Chephren      (4Ö2) / f³     (f³R Ö2)/ 4       2Ö2 b / ( f³)      53.17273225°

                                                                                                 53° 10' 21.8"

Mycerinus          2 / f         (R)(f)              (b) /               51.02655266°

                                                                                                51° 01' 35.5"

Red Pyramid     4 / f³         (R) f³ / 2         (2 b) / f³             43.35819755°

                                                                                                43° 21' 29.51"

 Bent Pyramid

Lower angle        Ö2            (R) Ö2           (b) / Ö2                 54.73561032°

                                                                                                54° 44' 8.2"

Upper angle       4 / f³        (R) f³ / 2         ( 2 b) / f³            43.35819755°

                                                                                                43° 21' 29.51"

 

R= radius,  D = diameter,  C= circumference, f = 1.6180339...

Slope = D/ b, Slope angle = Tan inv.  (D/b)

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Examples:   Calculations of the pyramid's heights

 

Khufu                   (b Öf) / 2        = 755.7488 (1.27201965) / 2 = 480.66366 ft

b = 755.7488 ft                                                                                       

Chephren           2 Ö2 b / ( f³)     = 2 Ö2 (706.24) / f³     = 471.5572 ft

b = 706.24 ft                                                                                         

Mycerinus            (b) /             =   335 / f                    = 207.04 ft              

b = 335.00 ft                                                                                       

Red Pyramid          (2 b) / f³        = (2) (722.25) /f³         = 341.00 ft    

b = 722.25 ft                                                                                          

                                         Bent Pyramid

Lower angle     (b)/Ö2         =  620 (Ö2)          =  876.8124ft    (Extended-height)

b= 620 ft                                                                                    

Upper angle       2(b) / f³    =  2(722.25) / f³         =   341.00 ft

b = 722.25 ft  

CAPSULE 2

I do not consider myself as an expert in math. I consider an expert in maths a man like Imhotep, that had the ability to design three different calendars for Egypt, established the procedures for the architectural design of temples, pyramids, walls, columns, ceilings, and all kind of stone work necessary to build the Egyptian monuments. Besides being proficient in math’s, geometry, physics, almost all sciences, he was a high priest, with the rank of a Pharaoh. How come some Egyptologists credit the old Egyptians capabilities with maths, that evidenced in old papyrus, which seems only elementary work? From another point, other Egyptologists believe in the Egyptian knowledge and abilities to work with the cosmos, such as the star alignments, the constellations, and others sciences that require high math’s calculations and equipment to determine their exact location in the space.

It is amazing the struggle to put Pi and Phi out of their calculations. For me there is not reason to leave the value of phi. It's formula is seen in nature, in the galaxies, even in the human proportions. It comes out easily from the triangles in the ratio 1: 2 in their sides. Comes from the square, from the circle, helping in establishing beauty an art in the build structures, and make easier the calculations and field surveying. One Egyptologist told me once, that f and Pi are completely out of any pyramid's study. I believe that the exact location of f in any structure, was considered sacred and in line with their religious dogmas. Why the center of the niche in the eastern wall, in the Queen Chamber, was set at a distance f from the northern wall, instead of the center of the wall? Why the descending passage of the Great Pyramid is exactly aligned to the f point in the vertical axis of the pyramid (using a circle for its design with radius equivalent to its height)? Are these coincidences? The triangles with the ratio 1: 2 in its sides can be found any place in the pyramid's design. The f function is inherent to this triangle.

 

CAPSULE 3

Besides the ventilation shafts in the Great Pyramid, there are other mysteries about the pyramids. Where are the working ramps the builders built for their construction? Well, as we assumed, the owners of the pyramids want the labor force to clean up all the premises after the job is finished. They want to see their finished property as better looking as possible. This is so in this time, and I believe, as well, in ancient times. I am sure the pharaohs required from the builders to remove all debris and trash from the finished works, and deliver them somewhere. The better place to place this material, in those times, were the original place where they were excavated. The excavation of these ramp materials, soil, mud, sand, etc., creates deep trenches, where the material could be re-deposited and the surface finished again, to erased all traces of its use. Maybe this is the reason, that even the material used for the ramps is not found.

When you do work at home, you use the same principle. The contractor has to removed and disposed of all trash, close and decorate all the service holes in the walls, such as air condition ducts, electrical, water, etc.

This same principle could be applied to the Queen Chamber and the King Chamber. The owner (Pharaoh) wants the walls polished, clean, all crevices fixed, and all service shafts closed and hidden. For that reason, if I were the supervisor at those times, working in those chambers, I will required from the chief supervisor, to handle the needed supplies, that is, the required oil supply to light the lamps, water, fresh air for the appropriate functioning of the lamps and for my men breathing, and besides, a rapid method of communication with my immediate supervisor, working in the upper platform. If you have been in the army, you know the important that is communication, the supply of water, food rations, and supervision of your men when they are working in a different scenario than usual. Therefore, I will ask the designer of the pyramid to include in the design plans, two service (ventilation) shafts in each chamber, and in the north and south walls. I understand that the Queen Chambers shafts will be closed before reaching the pyramid's face, since we will be working at the King Chamber and we have available the other two shafts. I know that I have to close these shafts when I finish my job, leaving the chamber's sides well polished and clean. In order to do that, I perfectly cut a 5 inches plaque of the face of the stone block which contains the shaft alignment. I use the service shaft during the construction to get fresh air, oil, water, information, tools, rations, medicines, whatever could be pull with ropes attached to flexible bags, or wooden boxes, from the upper platform, as well from the chamber. When the job is about to be finished, I clean all the shafts from all debris, and cement the 5 inches stone plaque to its original position in the corresponding front stone block. In this way, I eliminate all traces of the service shafts, clean and polished the ceiling, walls and floor. Finally, both  shafts, were closed at both ends. The top end of the shafts were over the working platform (area) of the pyramid. At this time, the King Chamber construction was about to be constructed. Therefore, I will use the same method to obtain the needed materials through the shafts. In this case, the  shafts had to be constructed up to their exits at the pyramid's faces. The shafts were needed for communication and services with the laborers inside the pyramid. At the end of the construction of the pyramid, while the faces were clean and shape, their exists were closed to avoid wind, water, and debris to enter and fill the shafts' channels.


With the elapsed time and stress forces developed in the 5 inches section of the cover stone plaque, probably it got cracked. When Mr. Wayman Dixon and his friend discover the cracked and cut open the sectional areas of the shafts, it appears that the shaft was cut up to 5 inches behind the front wall stone. If the plaque was well cemented, the indications will be that the section he cut was part of the whole stone block. I suggests the use of electronic or radiation equipment to determine if the stone block, where the shaft was cut, is really sound and consists of one piece. Otherwise, I think we shouldn’t accept that the shaft was cut up to 5 inches, from the face-stone, instead, it was built from the inside of the chamber and hidden with the front cover stone plaque. This is how and engineer, like myself, would look to these shafts.

Nevertheless, scholars and Egyptologists have the ideas that they were constructed for ventilation, others to align the shafts with the starts, and many to allow the pharaoh's spirit to go out to the sky. You still can select your point of view since "none" of the "defined purposes" have been proved to be the correct one.

 

CAPSULE 4


HOW TO DIVIDE, GEOMETRICALLY, ANY LINE

IN 1/3 AND 2/3 SEGMENTS

1. Set line AB of any length.

2. Trace and arc, at each end, using AB as radius.

3. Join the two arc intersection points (a) and (b). Mark point O, at its intersection with line AB. That would be the center of line AB.

4. Draw a circle using O as center, and OA, or OB, as radius.

5. Mark C and D as its horizontal diameter.

6. Trace the inclined line BD.

7. Trace the horizontal radius BE, corresponding to the circle centered at B.

8. At E, raise a vertical line to intersect the extension of the diameter CD, and mark point (k).

9. Trace line B(k), and mark point (m) at its intersection with the circumference of the circle centered at O.

10. At point (m), draw a horizontal line to intercept line AB, mark point (y).

The location of point (y) divides line AB in 2/3 and 1/3 of its length.

1in3

 

HOW TO DIVIDE, GEOMETRICALLY, ANY LINE IN 5 SEGMENTS

Now, if you are interested in dividing any line in (1/5 units), you can use this similar method, which I also developed. The line can be divided in 2, 3, 5, and many other whole numbers, an their multiples.

1. Set the length of the line as the diameter of a circle. Line AB represents the vertical diameter, while CD, the horizontal diameter.

2. Trace an equal circle tangent at point D, and center at F.

3. Trace a line from B to F, and mark point (n), at the intersection with the circumference of circle centered at O.

4. Set a horizontal line from point (n) to line AB, and mark point (h).

5. Point (h) would be located at 1/5 = 0.2000, from point B.

6. Measure this unit length along line AB and you will have the 5 segments. Select as many segments as you want from those 5.
 

1in5s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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If I am required to divide the width of a wall in thirds.

In this case I will use the string and pin method to solve the problem.

As shown in my drawings, in which I repeated the Figures for the only purpose of making it easier to understand.

 

1in3a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1

Extend string from A to B
Join ends at B, located and set pin O as center of AB.
Hold string at O, and set pin D perpendicular to AB, setting distance equal to OB.

Figure 2

Stretch string from B to D
and rotate at B to set pin E, perpendicular to AB.
At pin E, set a string perpendicular to BE, and to intersect the extension of the string line OD, set pint (k).

Figure 3


Stretch string from B to (k), and keep the
String line in position.

Figure 4

Stretch string from O to D, and rotate at O, to intersect the string from B to (k), set pin (m) at the intersection.

Set pin (y) at AB, in line with pin (m).

Point (y) would be 1/3 from B and 2/3 from A.

If for any reason I have not sufficient space in the wall to set the strings (because a small chamber), I apply the same method to  (l / 2) the length of the wall, and my last pin will divide the wall length in 6 parts. I measure two parts, and I have one third of the wall's length. In this way my pin and string space work will be confined to a very small area. For example, in a 6 meter wall length for a room, I will need less than 3 meters space.

I do not question that there could be other methods, simpler or better than mine, but this was my humble contribution to the problem.
 

 

CAPSULE 5

Formulas based on f,  which represents whole integers

f2 - f  = 1

f + (1 / f2)  = 2

f2 + (1 / f2) =  3

f3 - (1 / f3) =  4

f4 + (1 / f4) =  7

f5 - (1 / f5) = 11

f6 + (1 / f6) = 18

f7 - (1 / f7) = 29

f8 + (1 / f8) = 47

f9 - (1 / f9) = 76

f10 + (1 / f10) = 123

f11 - (1 / f11) = 199

f12 + (1 / f12) = 322

f13 - (1 / f13) = 521

f14 + (1 / f14) = 843

f15 - (1 / f15) = 1,364

f16 + (1 / f16) = 2,207

f17 - (1 / f17) = 3,571

f18 + (1 / f18) = 5,778

f19 - (1 / f19) = 9,349

f20 + (1 / f20) = 15,127

   f n = f n-1 + f n-2

 

CAPSULE 6

 

jan1

Junction between the Descending Corridor and the horizontal passage.

Note that the cross-section of the descending corridor is larger.

 

 

CAPSULE 7

 

CAPSULE 8

My idea that the reason why each pyramid has a different slope angle is that the Egyptian designers used different geometrical configurations for their designs. Just as an example: the configuration of a pyramid that is created by the circle which circumscribe a square. Let’s say the square is the base of the pyramid, the radius of the circle symbolizes the pyramid’s height. You can design a pyramid using this configuration. The resulting slope angle, as can be easily calculate is 54° 44’ 8’. Using this configuration, since the radius is one, any measurement, with our favorite unit of measurement, can be used for its height. All the dimensions of the pyramid will be automatically set, since they are proportional to its radius (height).

Just as a suggestion, you have to look for the evidence of Phi in pyramids structures, designs in papyrus, drawings, etc. But you will not find Phi in the place of the workers manhandling large blocks and cutting them to fit the construction with a square and a stone-cutter's hammer.

There are numerous configurations available for the pyramid's designs. Each pharaoh could select his preferred configuration. Another configuration could be the circle inscribed in a square, other the triangle with a 3:4:5 configuration. Note that the slopes angles are very simple to calculate, or even scale it to any size for the construction of the pyramids. There is no number crunching  needed (numerous nonsense calculations).

When we find a geometrical configuration that fits the design of a pyramid, then another, then another, and this continues... Specially, when as the pyramids show different slope angles, sizes, its time to investigate. When this concept explains the elaborate geometry of a pyramid, such as the amazing Bent Pyramid, we have to take a careful look at it. Although scholars prefer to explain its geometry by the occurrence of a failure in the structure. Read from Chapter 12 of the book the Bent Pyramid analysis. My proposal about its bent geometry indicate it was designed superimposing one pyramid's design over the other. When the two designs are superimposed, the bent design of the pyramid emerges. When the angles and dimensions of my proposal are compared with those measured at the structure, both are perfectly equal. Do you want to call this a coincidence? The reference used for the analysis is the book "Egyptian Pyramid Geometry", authored by Hadyn R. Butler. The most recent survey of the Bent pyramid's structure was performed by Dorner, J., who also work in the Giza's Area Mapping Project.

I think there is nothing wrong to investigate this proposal. The fact that this is new material does not means that is wrong. I could defend my theory before a Scholar's panel, as I did to gain my Master's degree in Engineering. As a professional civil engineer, professional surveyor, professional photographer, have patented several inventions in the US Patent Office, which are being used over the world. My book contains more than 400 pages, over 225 computer generated drawings from the pyramids, a collection of photos taken by me inside and outside the pyramids. I spent over 35 years in these studies. I have read and search (many books, in different countries during this period of time) to create my theory and support it. I have visited and examined carefully the Giza’s area pyramid complex, and taken photos, inside and outside the pyramids. I say this to demonstrate that I have done my assignment, and that my work deserves respect and consideration, if not credit at all.

I always thought I was, with all my good intentions, helping the science of Egyptology, in matters that are different from their curriculums, such as the engineering viewpoint of the geometrical designs of the pyramids. I thought that the Egyptologists, gladly, would look to this Bent Pyramid's proposal from a fellow professional. Maybe the problem is that I went to the wrong place to ask for evaluation. I hope the book contents are kept exposed to scholars and Egyptology students, until they decide to take a good look at them.

                                    CAPSULE 9

Andre Pochan: Exposed Great Pyramid's creases

Andre Pochan worked seven years studying the GP and measuring all its structural parts. He is the author of a book published in Spanish and translated to English "The Mysteries of the Great Pyramid". It was originally published as L'Enigme de la grande pyramide".

 

 

 The concavities of the GP faces are explained and their measurements given in Mr. Pochan's book. In his book, he states: " the most remarkable fact is the hollowing of the faces, which obliged the architect to displace the Descending Passage's axis 7.29 meters (14 cubits) east of the north apothem. This displacement of the axis was necessary in order to avoid inundating the Subterranean Chamber, as each face's hollow constituted a vast gutter capable of draining more than 2,000 cubic meters of water during a rainstorm". Mr. Pochan also sketched this hollowing dimension at the midpoint of the base, as 0.92 meters (3 feet) as presented in a paper read to the Institut d' Egypte in September 1935.This paper also credited Mr. Pochan for the discovery of the red paint that once covered the pyramids. Besides, recognizes that he was the first to called the attention to the curious irregularity of the hollowing of the faces. The angle of the hollowing at the level of the bedrock, as he measured and stated, is approximately 27 minutes (0.45º = 27'

He also shows in his books, three additional infrared photographs, snapped at ground level, taken at 15 seconds interval, on march 21, 1934 (equinox day), showing the same phenomenon, and to demonstrate to all, beyond a doubt, this phenomenon, he called "the phenomenon of the flash".

References:
Pochan André, The mysteries of the Great Pyramids, Avon Books, 1978.

Pochan André, El Enigma de la Gran Pirámide, Plaza & Janes, Segunda Edición: Octubre, 1974.

 

CAPSULE 10

THE PYRAMID'S DESCENDING PASSAGE

THE CONSTRUCTION - AS I WOULD WORK IT OUT

To work out the descending passage, it had to be done in two sections for a distance of 345’ : from the ground level to the horizontal corridor and from the ground level up, to the exit (entrance). This last section, up the pyramid, should not be too difficult.

From the ground level down:

To set the exact point where the excavation should start:

Here is where my circle method is very useful. If the layout of the field survey for the pyramid is done with a circle, it will look like this.



pirsurvey

 


Since the vertical cross sectional view of the pyramid is within the area of a circle, it can be rotated to a horizontal position, making the terrain a drawing board, like it is shown in the figure. You can layout the location and position of the chambers, corridors, etc. over the terrain.

Now, from calculations, or from the scale drawing, or by actually measuring in the field, the exact location for the initial excavation can be determined. To do this in the field, after the centerline axis (n-s) of the pyramid is set, they needed to measure and mark the displacement of 23.92 feet to the east (in their cubits unit), to set the centerline for the corridors. They could had Marked this line over the terrain by setting wooden stakes and level cords, oriented (n-s) to define this axis.

 






Set wooden stakes over the ground terrain, in the south-north direction, joined by a level (horizontally set) cords. This line should coincide with the centerline of the passages center. Now, the builders should measure 20.5” (1 cubit?) to each side of the centerline, to provide for the 41” width of the corridor. Set wooden stakes and level cords (n-s) direction to mark the corridor width. They will have three cord lines in the (n-s) direction, and completely level. The use of two cord lines for the top of the corridor, one for the center, and two others for the bottom, will increase their precision.

From the same field layout survey, they could extend a cord to determine the length of this passage section = (250.69’), taken from my design.

 





The cross section of the corridor is 41” width and 47” height, the area for excavation to be marked over the terrain should measure, horizontally and to the south, the equivalence of 105 inches, this, to create the 47 inches as the height of the corridor. So, they have establish a 1: 2 triangle, 47", 94", 105" sides, that is, (1)(47) = 47”, (2)(47) = 94”, and (47) square root of five) = 105”. They could use the same wooden stakes to make these markings. They could had used long wooden poles, and set the inclination slope, using the cords. They could even place inclined (straight) planks, attached with nails to the poles, to completely fix the angle and make a line of site.

They are now ready to start the excavation.



                                              corridor3

After each cubit length of excavation, the chord alignment for the slope angle could be verified. Two men could excavate at the sides. Workers removed the chippings and debris to continue the excavation. The excavator men could use small wooden triangles, 1: 2 ratio, and a plumb bob to confirm the alignment, which also continue been checked using the cords. As the workers inside the corridor cut the stones, they put the chips in baskets, where they are pull out with cords, to be disposed outside. These baskets could have a double cord system, where the workers could pull them in to the corridor when empty. This basket could serve as service devices: to replace the cutting tools, to receive water to drink, to received the supply of oil for the lamps, when needed, etc. At about the end of the 345', the cord corresponding to the corridor's length (fixed at the entrance) is delivered to the men doing the excavation. They stop when they reach the end of this chord.

They work out the intersection to the horizontal entrance leading to the subterranean chamber. This could have been measured also with a chord, and be available for the horizontal corridor work. However, this section needed another procedure for construction. The centerline cord could be used to set the point for change in angle, and keep the same south alignment of the line. To set the new cross section for the horizontal corridor, they could had used clamped cross sticks of wood, having the measurements of 32” width and 36” height between their extremes. They could have worked this horizontal section based on the centerline of the horizontal axis, and the cross sticks of wood as a measuring device.

At the same time, a lot of people were working around the pyramid's site.

My geometrical configuration of the pyramid, again, help me to identify the different points of work. According to my design, this descending corridor is aligned with point marked X. The pyramid’s vertical cross sectional plane goes through the pyramid’s axis. However, we know that the centerline of the passages was moved 23.92’ to the east. From the Perfect Symbol, use to define all pyramid work, it is understand that the Pharaoh wants his mortuary temple built exactly below the Pyramid, not below the corridors centerline. This is not seen in the (n-s) cross sectional view. Therefore, the Pharaoh’s chamber should be located to the west of the center of the corridor.

 

 

In order to further confuse the intruders, the inclined corridor, leading to point X, was changed to horizontal, leading to the subterranean chamber (unfinished, because it was a fake). But maybe you have noticed, that before the entrance to this chamber, in the horizontal section, there is a small niche, about 1 meter deep and 1.85 meters width, at the west wall.

 

 

 To me, this could be the entrance to the real corridor to enter the Khufu's chamber which was completely sealed. This information, to my knowledge, has never been investigated. This supposed corridor to the King's mortuary chamber should descend at any time in its way, to the Pharaoh’s chamber, which should be located about 12 feet below, at the center of the vertical axis of the pyramid. Inside the subterranean chamber, if you take a look to the west side of it, there are some excavations which apparently were abandoned, but that also could lead into corridors to the west side, descending to Khufu's chamber. If I am right or wrong in my analysis,  time will tell.

In relation to the escape shaft, this could have been done when the subterranean chamber’s work was initiated. The excavation created so much debris and rubbish pieces, that make them difficult to remove from the site. Since the pyramid’s was still at the first level, they could have decided to construct this escape shaft from the level terrain, to facilitate the movement of the labors carrying all the litter. Those carrying the baskets could use the descending corridor, while those coming with the empties, could go through the escape shaft. This procedure could continue since the subterranean chamber was not finished. The builders continue increasing the height of the shaft as the operation continued. The reasons for the escape shaft to be so tortuous, is that this service shaft was not in the plans, and they had to improvised its way. They had to go away from the ascending passage when in that level, finally they decided to bypass the ascending corridor and arrived at the end west corner of the Grand Gallery.

 

CAPSULE 11

 

Function of f

Many people are scary about f and how to establish geometrically its ratio. I will explain, in a simple method, how to draw it based on right triangle, and based on a square.

Triangle:

You have a line (a - b), of any length, and want to divide it at the f point (it means that the ratio of the longest side of the line, divided by the shortest, is equal to 1.6180339 = f. With length (a - b) construct a right triangle with sides having the ratio (1 : 2).

1. From point c and radius (c - b) draw an arc to intersect the diagonal (a - c), and mark point d at the intersection.

2. From point a, and radius (a - d), draw an arc to intercept line (a - b), mark point e at the intersection.

Point e is the f point. The section of the line (a - e) divided by the section (e - b) = f = 1.6180339. If you divide section (c - b) by (a - e) the result is the inverse of Phi, that is, (1 / f) = 0.6180339.

Square:

It is required that the line (d - c) = 1, be increased so that its length (d - g) is equal to Phi = 1.6180339.

Construct a square using the length (d - c) as one of its sides. Divide the square drawing lines from the center of the sides, that is, (a - b) and (f - e). With a compass or a chord, from e, draw an arc with (e - b) as radius to intercept the extension of the line (d - c), mark point g, at its intersection.

Since (d - c) = 1, (d - e) = 0.5,

(e - b) = square root of (0.5)2 + (1)2 = square root of 1.25 = 1.118033989

(e - b) = (e - g)    Therefore,  (d - g) = (d - e) + (e - g) = 0.5 + 1.118033989

= Phi = 1.618033989.

 

How to create f3 and the inverse (1 / f3 ).

 

 Draw a circle in each end of the diagonal, using the shortest side as its radius. See in the figure the values created of f3 and the inverse (1 / f3).

 

CAPSULE 12

After you kneel down to clear the 41 inches of the limiting cavity to enter the Antechamber, the space is only large enough to permit a thin person. He has to rise straight up in a space having 16 inches (distance between the granite leaf and the Grand Gallery’s wall). He can barely move inside this space.

At a point in its floor line, just north of the granite leafs, the floor rises 1/4 inch, and then, following this level, continues until it reaches the entrance to the King Chamber, where appears a second rise of 3/4 of an inch.

.J. P. Lepre, indicates in his book The Egyptian Pyramids, page 89, that although the Egyptologists do not have a position regarding the two rises in the floor, that the two rises are not attributed to any roughness in the floor itself - for that floor is very finely leveled and smooth; but to a deliberate adjustment by the architect

To me, the 1st low passage (underpass) was completely seal from the entrance to the ½ inch raised floor stone block. This rise in the floor apparently was set on purpose to stop the sealing block from moving far into the inside of the antechamber, when the sealing block was placed, besides, to avoid been pushed by any robbers.

The second lower passage to the King’s Chamber apparently was also completely seal from its entrance to its exit a the king Chamber. The raise of ¾ inch in the floor elevation at the entrance of the chamber, could serve the same purpose, that is, to hold or stop the sealing block from moving too far forward, if pushed inside the chamber. That’s my explanation for the two raised floor blocks. Observe that the floor line was raised exactly at the appropriate locations, this has to be the answered for their existence.

However, It appears that the smart robbers cut around the Grand Gallery's south wall corner, getting access to the sealing block. They could introduce metal dowels into the block; tied them with chords, allowing pulling the sealing block back to the outside, into the Great step platform.

          

   Entrance to the Antechamber                 Entrance to the King Chamber

After accessing into the antechamber, they brake the three blocking stones (portcullises), and repeat the same task again to take out the 2nd lower sealing block. Cut around the antechamber south walls (entrance to the King Chamber) to get access to the sealing block. Introduce metal dowels, which could be tied with ropes, to pull it out of the passage. This is what it can be read from the marks left. The cuts of the south wall of the Grand Gallery around the underpass-sealing block can be seen at the site, as the cuts at the entrance to the second lower passage (In this place, the cut sections were rebuilt, but it can be noticed. The following photos shown this entrance condition.

Yet another curiosity about the Antechamber, which everyone has his own ideas about its existence is the so called the carved boss. It was carved in the top section of the granite leafs. As I have stated before, we need to know the existence of something to look out for it. You cannot search for something you do not even imagine exists. Nobody knows what the carved boss is, therefore, nobody is looking for it. It just appear or looks like a working or handling boss for the stone block. If I show to someone a casting of the object, he could read nothing from it, except to describe it.

My case is different. the carved boss I found was what I was looking for. It was exactly carved in the location I expected. The size and configuration was also as I was looking for, scaled and derived from the Perfect Symbol. I reproduced the same carved object using my design configuration. It meant something special and positive for me. I was pleased  to know that my years of  personal crusade for finding the geometrical solution of the Great Pyramid showed another step toward its conclusion.

There is no reason (apparently) for the carved boss for been at that location. If the builder wanted to raise the block (that has the boss), instead of carving 1 inch deep in the whole face of the two slabs to create a 1-inch protuberance, why not dig a cavity in the upper slab’s side, capable of holding a wooden thick board? They were used to do that type of construction, as shown in thousands of block stones in pyramids, temples and tombs. Another thing, why the one-inch thickness of it, that denies its use as a working boss? Additionally , the horizontal bottom  tip for the working bosses are flat to received the ropes and avoid slippage. the horizontal bottom of this carved object is slanted and will no work in the desired fashion as expected. For these particular reasons this carved  protuberance could have had a different reason for its existence, time will tell!

 

I do not want to leave without citing this other example. I am referring to the well known "Zodiac of Dendera" in Egypt. This circular zodiac shows around its periphery the distribution of a group of men, women, and a group of constellation symbols. However, if any one is called to delineate the exact location of the figures in order to carved or paint the circular zodiac, it will be very difficult to create an equal geometrical pattern. Using the same configuration as for the boss, the drawing can be easily reproduced. I can reproduce the pattern, the astrologists will have to set the constellations. It can be done at any desired size scale for the zodiac.

 

"Zodiac of Dendera"

 

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