2. HOW TO BUILD AND SEAL THE ANTECHAMBER

The following is my proposal as to how the Antechamber of the Great Pyramid was designed, built and sealed. I want to point out that the dimensions I used here are a compilation of those informed by the different surveyors that measured it. Not all of them agree in the dimensions, we will find small differences in the dimensions. Especially when the portcullis slabs have not been found, as well the wooden beams. However, my procedure for the design, building and sealing is not affected by these small differences in the dimensions.

 

ANTECHAMBER

As it would be seen, this small structure requires a detail set of plans. I just wander how some people believe that such structure as the Great Pyramid could have been built without geometrical plans, and using the simple mathís knowledge attributed to the builders, based on the mathís papyrus examples. Although such a structure could have religious motives for building, it is an engineering job. Its building requires detail plans, and construction techniques and ingenuity to build. This can be demonstrated in my following presentation about this small room, the Antechamber.

As should be known, before any construction work starts, we need the plans and specifications for the job. Letís start with the plans. Since the building and its rooms are considered to have religious motives, lets assume for my presentation, that the Egyptian designer have developed a generic pattern for their designs. This geometrical pattern could have existed, but if we do not consider that possibility, we will never find it. As it has been said, we cannot find something we donít know exists; we can have it in our hands, but it means nothing to us. We will attach a reason for it, according to our knowledge and experiences. Since I firmly believe that this geometrical configuration existed and was used by the Egyptian designers that allow me to find the structural proportions, and explain many things that are inexplicable by the scholars of this time.

My simple geometrical configuration, as I presented here, explains the Great Pyramidís geometry, as well other geometrical parts and structural elements of this magnificent monument. In this case, I am going again to use the same geometric pattern (Perfect Symbol) to generate the antechamber dimensions. As you will remember, this is a generic configuration, that is, the dimensions we get depend on its radius, or diameter of the circle. Many people do not like to deal with circles, but remember that it was the symbol of the Sun God for the Egyptians, therefore it should be important.

The Perfect Symbol


As explained before in other of my articles, the triangle HQT represents in the Figure the cross sectional view of the Great Pyramid, and the square symbolizes the base of the pyramid. When the height of the pyramid is set as the circleís radius, the configuration gives us the Great Pyramid geometry and dimensions. However, as stated, this is a generic configuration where any number and unit of measurement can be used as the radius, or diameter, to draw or design plans according to the desired configuration.

This figure will be used to determine the length and width of the antechamber. Many will remember that I also used it to design, according to my idea, the so-called "boss", at the front of the granite leafs. My method will set all the dimensions for the antechamber, however, to get them, we need the size of the diameter.

Letís assumed that the Egyptian designer, using the Symbol sets the circleís diameter equivalent to 149.00 inches, as shown in the next figure. Observe that the square shown in the figure have an appropriate section for the rectangle formed at the sides of the antechamber if the vertical sides are extended to form a rectangular figure, as shown in the figure.

 

Automatically, in this geometrical process, by calculations, we will find that the length of the rectangular base will be 117 inches. I developed a formula to calculate this distance. My formula indicates that the base length (b) of the square (which represents the pyramidís base) is b = (D / ÷ 1.618033). That is, 149.00 / 1.27201965 = 117.136 inches. Therefore, the height of the antechamber would be set as 149 inches, while its length would be 117 inches.

We have to set the width of the rectangular box. It seems that the designer wanted really to use the configuration. To set up its drawing, we need to start tracing a line equal to the ÷5. The second step is to project the line equal to the (÷5 - 1 )and you have the configuration. Therefore, he could have think that to validate the configuration, the width of the rectangular box to complete the antechamber should be a proportion between the length and the width, equivalent to the proportion between ÷5 and the (÷5 - 1). Written in a formula, this would be L / W = (÷5) / (÷5 - 1). That is, W = 117 (÷5 - 1) / (÷5) = 64.68 = 65 inches. This simple calculation shows that the required width will be 65 inches. In the next figure, see the cross section of the antechamber

 

 (the rectangle). The width was calculated as the ratio of W = (117)

÷5 - 1) / ÷5 = (117) 92 / 167 =64.68 = 65 in

L = (117)

 

The antechamber without the ceiling

 

This design calls for a rectangular box shape for the antechamber, 149 inches height, 117 in length and 65 inches in width. Surprise!!! these are the correct dimensions of the Antechamber. This is what Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie measured and stated about the Antechamber dimensions:

"Taking the antechamber alone, we may say that its dimensions above the granite wainscot of the sides vary from 114.07 to 117.0 inches in length, and 64.48 to 65.48 in width; the whole chamber is from 149.01 to 149.65 high, the ceiling being from 152.6 to 153.0 above the virtual end of the gallery floor."

The following figure shows the cross sectional view of the Antechamber, including longitudinal and vertical measurements. The stone slab shown at the front is the stone support for the ropes (granite leafs), where the upper section shows the traditionally called "boss".

 

Anyway, we have determined the correct dimensions for the antechamber. Now we need to ask the quarry and the storage and supply room, to prepare and send the following articles to the pyramidís site:

1. Two (2) stone panels to be placed against the east and west walls of the antechamber. Each panel will have the dimensions as shown in the drawings.

2. Three (3) stone beams for setting up the antechamberís ceiling.

3. Three (3) round wooden logs (19.5 inches diameter), 64" length to be used as beams.

4. Four (4) wooden blocks to be used as side supports for the wooden beams. This is done to prevent the beamís lateral movement when the ropes are pulled. They must have the dimensions shown in the sketch. Since the lower part of the antechamber is reduced in width, and do not permit the appropriate handling of the wooden beams, these should be placed in position before the ceiling slabs are placed.

5. Three (3) portcullises slabs, 20.5 inches in thickness, 51.5 inches height and 48 inches in its length. The design of the slabs is as shown in the figure.

From the bottom of the portcullises, cut a section to provide a 3.5 width, by 3.25-depth foot, along its sides, to be encasing in the lateral space between the floor of the antechamber and the inward face of the vertical grooves. Therefore, the slabs will be resting its two foot inside the two corresponding holes, next to the east and west walls. In addition, four 3 Ĺ" diameter holes will be drilled at the upper section of the portcullises, as detailed in the drawing, to provide the passage and retrieval of the ropes.

6. Two sealing blocks:

a. One sealing block for the Grand Galleryís side passage, 60 inches long, 41 inches width and 41 inches high. The floor stop block is located at 65 inches from the entrance. The 60 inches in length sealing block, provides 5 inches space for a stone plate cover, to be placed over the sealing blockís face, to hide the entrance location. The plate cover should conform the south wall face blocks.

b. The quarry should cut another sealing block for the Kingís Chambers corridor. It should be 41 inches width, 41 inches high and 100.25 inches in length. Provisions are necessary to overcome the first Ĺ inch raised floor stop while moving this sealing block to its final position. A provisional Ĺ inch wooden ramp will be placed over the floor, adjacent to the raised block, to allow the sealing block to smoothly pass over this small obstacle. The small wooden ramp will be removed when the sealing block clears the area. The raised block stop is conveniently located at the midpoint over the floor, between the back of the south Grand Gallery wall and the vertical projection line of the front side corresponding to the granite slabs. This additional space, will allow the sealing block to slightly rise to overcome the Ĺ inch floor obstacle. When further pushed-in, this block will finally stop at the ĺ inch stop floor block, at the chamberís entrance and its face will rest flush, with the antechamber south wall.

7. Six (6)-wooden support blocks, to hold the portcullis slabs in the provisional position. Each one should be 6 inches width, 20.5 inches in length and 41 inches high. To facilitate their removal, each block will have a drilled hole in the 6" direction, to pass a rope through, and permit to pull them out to the Grand Gallery.

8. Enough ropes, in various diameter sizes, and lengths, to be used as needed.

9. A stone slab, to be used as rope supports, will be split in two sections (now called granite leafs).

a. One section will be placed over the other. The upper section will be round at the top, similar to the round wooden beams, to provide the angle and space necessary for turning the rope lines around it, and run them in a downward direction toward the Grand Gallery. This slab upper section will have a channel cut at the center of the bottom, 2 inches in diameter, to allow passing a rope under the slab for support and maneuvering control while lowering it through the side wallís grooves. Due to the location of this channel groove, the center of the official Pharaoh Seal to be carved over its front side, will be displaced 1 inch toward the west side of the slab center, and 5 inches up the bottom of the slab.

The official and secret Pharaohís seal

My idea of the Seal comes from the fact that this carved object has no used at all in the construction process. Especially such a well designed and carved object. As a professional, I believe we shouldnít dismiss it as a regular working boss, as found in any place around the pyramids and temples. I prefer to believe that this is a Seal, carved in a strategic location at the front slab panel, to indicate the successful finishing and closing of the Great Pyramid. Besides, it could have the secret key to the geometrical design of the Great Pyramid and all its structural sections.

b. The lower section will have a 2 Ĺ inches drilled hole at its center, from side to side, located about 3 inches from its top, to pass a controlling and support rope while descending it into the wallís grooves.

10. Three (3) stone blocks to permanently close the ceiling. Their length will be place from north to south. Their dimensions will be specified before the antechamberís inside work is finished.

Procedure to build the antechamber

The stone floor of the antechamber is required to have built-in the two raised blocks to stop the sealing blocks from exceeding their length position when closing the Kingís Chamber.

The east and west walls will have grooves cut to slide and hold, the portcullis slabs, as well the rope supporting granite slabs, in front of the portcullises.

The height of the wainscots will be 111 inches on the west wall and 103 inches on the east wall. Their tops will be prepared to hold a 19.5 inches diameter wooden beam. For this, three 20" diameters, semicircular bedding cradles will be cut at the west top, while the east wall wainscot will be straight all the way.

 Inside the Antechamber

The elevation of the top wainscot at the east side will be 8 inches lower than that at the west side. Four inches will have to be trimmed to each wooden beamís diameter, to level off and allow for its rotation. The diameterís cut will be from the last 12 inches of the wooden beams. To allow for the wooden beamís rotation, three wooden blocks will be prepared to hold the beams in place when pulled and they rotate, the required dimensions of these blocks are shown in the sketch. It is important that this wooden block, as the wooden beams, be positioned over the wainscots before the ceiling blocks are placed. Otherwise, the work cannot be done, since there is not enough space in the lower antechamber section to manage the wooden beams from below.

Antechamberís south wall:

1. Four grooves, approximately 3.5" deep, have to be cut from the top of the Kinís Chamber entrance, to the top of the ceiling. The reasons to cut them to the top of the ceiling are that the portcullis slab will be put in place from the top of the ceiling. The slab will be placed next to the wall. Therefore, the grooves for the ropes to lower it into the antechamber need to go all the way down, from the ceiling to the top of the Kingís Chamberís entrance corridor. However, these same grooves will be used again when this portcullis is closed.

2. Before the portcullis is lowered, the six supports are placed in position inside the antechamber's floor. They will be placed as shown in the figure.

 

3. The first portcullis slab will be lowered as shown in the figure. It will be inserted in the corresponding grooves, and lower until it rests over the two corresponding wooden supports. The ropes are then removed from the stone slab.

4. The second and third portcullis slabs will be lowered following the same procedure as the first, until they rest on the wooden supports, then, the ropes are removed.

 

5. The granite support slabs to hold the ropes, have less weight than the portcullises; besides, they are split in two sections. The first and larger granite slab section is 28" inches high. It will be lower into the grooves using one rope through its only hole, basically for maneuvering purposes. No special grooves under the slab are necessary for the other supporting ropes. They could be placed directly under the slab. There will be no problem retrieving the ropes, since this slab do not touch the floor. This stone slab will be suspended between the two elevated bases at the east and west walls.

6. The second section of the granite slab is only 24 inches high. Its weight is less than the previous section. I will be lowered as the first section, but the control rope in this case will be place through a groove channel cut at the slab bottom. Other supporting ropes could be place under the slab. However, since this section will rest over the previous one, two small wooden blocks (about 4 inches high and 20 inches in length) can be place over the first slab to receive temporary this second. When the slab is resting over the supports, the ropes outside the center groove channel can be removed. Using the rope through the channel groove, and wooden planks, the second slab can be lowered to permanently rest over the first slab. The rope through the cut channel can be removed now.


7. At this time, we are ready to position the wooden beams, and wooden supports. Minor adjustments can be made to exactly fit the wooden beams so that they can rotate when the ropes are placed around, and pulled.

8. All other material will be kept in storage, nearby, to close and seal the Kingís Chamber when needed. 

Closing permanently the Kingís Chamber

When the time comes, at the death of the Pharaoh, the chamber will be closed and sealed using the following procedure:

1. The sealing block for the Kingís Chamberís corridor will be push until it stops at the raised floor block at the chamberís entrance. The end of the block will be flush with the south face of the antechamber.

2. Now, the first portcullis will be moved to its locking position, at the front of the sealing block, and chamberís entrance corridor. Workers in the Grand gallery will hold the end of the four ropes, while other workers will climb with one end, over the supporting rope slab and the wooden beams to set the rope lines. The ropes will be wet, as well the beamís bearings and the stone grooves with oil or grease to reduce friction. Finally, the workers will retrieve the end of the ropes to the Grand Gallery. The arrangement of the ropes will be as follows to lower the portcullis slabs:

3. There will be four (4) rope lines; each line will be identical to the other. For the first portcullis slab in front of the Kingís Chamberís entrance, the four grooves cut at the south wall will be used again. The four rope lines initiate at the grand gallery, raised up to the top of the front granite slabs and around them to the top and over the wooden beams. They are introduce into the southís wall grooves, passing through the holes in the portcullis slabs, and raised vertically, to go around the second wooden beam, and around the granite slab, and then, down to the Grand Gallery where workers will hold the eight ends of the ropes. The curve sections at the end of the southís wall grooves, on top of the entrance corridor, being in front of the holes, will direct the ropes to cross the slab, where the workers will pull them upward, to over and around the second wooden beam. At the same time, other workers will install other two lines of ropes to retrieve the supporting wooden blocks below the portcullis slabs, when the slab is raised.

4. To lower the portcullis slab will take only seconds. As shown in the following figure, a group of workmen will hold steady the four (4) rope lines (resisting the pulling), while another group will pull just enough to slightly raise the stone weight from the supports. This action of pulling the ropes only will generate a very short rotation of the wooden beams, or movement displacement of the ropes, in the matter of inches. This means that if the ropes are pulled just several inches, the slab will be raised the necessary amount to relieve the weight from the supports, and allow to easily retrieve the supports. Therefore, if the beams rotate or not, is of no importance. The same happens with the friction factor. Two or three men pulling, and three or four resisting the pulling, will do the work. Nevertheless, if more workers were necessary, they were available. The men pulling will slowly relieve the tension in the ropes, and the slab will be seated in position, therefore, there is no big deal with this procedure. When the weight of the slab is relieved from the slab, the supporting wooden blocks will be easily pulled out to the Grand Gallery using the two sets of ropes.

5. Reviewing the process, the pulling group for the portcullis slab will continue reducing the pulling force until the stone slab is being placed, slowly, over the antechamberís floor. At this time, all the ropes can be retrieved from this slab, and set again to position the second portcullis slab.

 

6. For the second slab, the ropes will go down from the top of its corresponding wooden beam, to pass through the slab holes and up to the following next wooden beam. As in the first slab, the supports are removed when the slab is slightly raised and the slab slowly lowered to its permanent position.

7. For the third slab, the ropes will go down from its top wooden beam, pass through its drilled holes, and up to go around the top of the rope support slab. The wooden supports are removed as explained before for the other slabs, and the portcullis is slowly lowered as the others.

8. Finally, all the ropes can be removed from the antechamber.

9. At this time the workers are ready to push the second sealing block into the entrance corridor to the antechamber. This sealing block has the same cross-section as the previous one, but it is about half its length. Therefore, it is half the weight, making it simple to push. As the other sealing block, this slab will have a stop, with a raised ĺ inch floor block. This raised block is located at 65 inches from the entrance at the Grand Gallery. Therefore, the block length was ordered from the quarry to have a length of 60 inches, this, to allow to place a 5 inches cover stone plate to dissimulate the entrance location.

10. Finally, the stone cover plate is shaped as the other stone blocks at the face of the Grand Galleryís south wall. The Kingís Chamberís job is finished. It has been designed, built and sealed, as stated, and waiting for the robbers.

 

 

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